Wheel Chasers

The Jeep Advantage: Unleashing the Power of Off-Roading with Confidence

Introduction to Jeep and Off-Roading

Off-roading is an exhilarating experience that allows you to test the limits of your vehicle while also enjoying the great outdoors. For many off-road enthusiasts, the Jeep is the go-to vehicle for a thrilling ride.

Jeeps are known for their ruggedness, versatility, and durability, making them ideal for navigating tough terrain. In this article, we’ll explore what makes a Jeep the best for off-roading, as well as provide an introduction to the sport of off-roading.

What is Off-Roading? Off-roading is the practice of driving a vehicle on unpaved roads or terrain that is not typically conducive to driving.

This can include rocky trails, steep inclines, and muddy paths, among others. Off-roading includes a variety of activities, from simple trail riding to rock crawling and other extreme forms of off-road racing.

What is a Jeep? Jeeps are a type of off-road vehicle that was first introduced during World War II.

Originally designed for military use, Jeeps were used for a variety of tasks, from transporting troops to carrying supplies. After the war ended, Jeeps became popular with civilians for recreational activities such as off-roading.

Today, Jeeps are manufactured by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and are available in many different models, ranging from the rugged Wrangler to the more luxurious Grand Cherokee. Regardless of the model, Jeeps are known for their powerful engines, sturdy frames, and all-terrain capabilities.

What Makes a Jeep the Best for Off-Roading? There are several reasons why Jeep is the best vehicle for off-roading.

These features are common to most Jeep models, and they make them an ideal choice for navigating through rough terrain. 1.

4×4 Capabilities

Jeeps are equipped with a four-wheel-drive system (4WD), which provides excellent traction and stability when driving on unpaved roads. The 4WD system ensures that all four wheels receive power from the engine, allowing the vehicle to navigate through challenging terrain with ease.

2. Ground Clearance

Jeeps also have excellent ground clearance, which means that the vehicle can clear obstacles without getting caught on rocks or debris.

The high suspension of the vehicle can also absorb shock when driving over rough terrain. 3.

Skid Plates

Jeeps are also equipped with skid plates, which protect the undercarriage of the vehicle from damage while driving over rocks and other obstacles. The skid plates act as a shield, preventing damage to the oil pan, transmission, and other critical components of the vehicle.

4. Off-Road Tires

Off-roading requires tires that can handle the terrain.

Jeeps come equipped with tires that have aggressive treads, providing the vehicle with excellent traction and grip, even on slippery surfaces. 5.

Removable Tops and Doors

One of the unique features of the Jeep is that the tops and doors can be removed, providing a more immersive experience when off-roading. This feature makes the ride more exciting, allowing drivers to feel more connected to nature as they navigate through challenging terrain.

6. Strong Construction

Jeeps are built to withstand rough terrain.

They have sturdy frames, reinforced axles, and other components that make them durable and rugged. This construction ensures that the vehicle can handle the toughest terrains without breaking down.


In conclusion, the Jeep is the go-to vehicle for off-roading, thanks to its impressive features and capabilities. The 4WD system, ground clearance, skid plates, off-road tires, removable tops and doors, and strong construction all contribute to making Jeeps the best vehicle for tackling tough terrains.

So, if you’re an off-road enthusiast looking for a thrilling ride, look no further than a Jeep. Off-roading is rapidly becoming a popular recreational activity for those looking to experience the thrill of the open road and test the capabilities of their vehicle.

But before investing in a Jeep for off-roading, it is essential to consider a few factors to ensure that you choose the right vehicle for your needs. In this article, we will delve into the different factors to consider before selecting a Jeep for off-roading.

Additionally, we will also take a brief look at the evolution of the Jeep over time.

Factors to Consider Before Choosing a Jeep for Off-Roading

1. Intended Use

The primary factor to consider before choosing a Jeep for off-roading is the intended use.

Are you looking for a jeep that can handle mild off-road terrain such as forest paths and dirt roads or a powerful machine that can tackle challenging terrain, including rock crawling and mudding? This question’s answer will determine the type of Jeep you should invest in and how to customize the vehicle for off-roading.

2. Budget

Off-roading can be an expensive sport, and purchasing a Jeep that can handle tough terrain can significantly impact your wallet.

Before making a purchase, it is essential to set your budget, including both the initial cost of the vehicle and the associated maintenance costs. Don’t forget to take into account the cost of modifications such as tires, lift kits, winches, and other specialty equipment required for off-roading.

3. Terrain

Off-roading terrain can vary significantly, from sandy beaches to rocky outcrops.

It is crucial to consider the terrain you’re likely to encounter when selecting your Jeep for off-roading. While all Jeeps are built rugged and durable, different models and configurations are better suited to specific terrains.

4. Modifications

Modifications to your Jeep can significantly impact its off-roading capabilities.

Based on the intended use and terrain, consider the essential upgrades for off-roading, including lift kits, winches, and rock sliders. It is essential to purchase the right modifications for your Jeep to ensure that you get the most out of the vehicle when off-roading.

5. Resale Value

Jeeps are known to hold their value well, making them an excellent investment.

However, the resale value of your Jeep will depend significantly on the modifications made to the vehicle. It is essential to research which modifications hold their value best to ensure maximum resale value when you eventually sell the vehicle.

The Evolution of Jeep Over Time

The first Jeep was manufactured during World War II in 1941. At the time, Jeeps were designed for military use as a small, lightweight, and all-terrain vehicle.

The Willys-Overland Motor Company was responsible for producing the initial designs, along with Ford, who also manufactured a version of the Jeep during the war. After the war, Jeeps became popular with civilians, leading to several modifications for better performance, improved safety, and comfort.

In 1945, Willys-Overland developed the first civilian Jeep, known as the CJ-2A, which offered full instrumentation and a tailgate for easy storage. In 1947, the Jeep Station Wagon was introduced, featuring four-wheel drive, independent suspension, and a seven-passenger capacity.

In 1953, the first Jeep pickup truck was introduced, followed by the Jeep Wagoneer in 1963, which was notable for being the first SUV. In the 1970s, Jeep introduced the CJ-7, which featured a longer wheelbase, automatic transmission, and a more comfortable ride.

In 1984, the Jeep Cherokee was introduced, offering improved performance, spaciousness, and comfort. In the 1990s, Jeep experienced significant growth, with the introduction of the Wrangler, which became an instant success among off-road enthusiasts.

In 1993, the Jeep Grand Cherokee was introduced, offering luxury, comfort, and an excellent off-roading experience all in one vehicle. In the 2000s, Jeep expanded its lineup to include various models, including the Commander, Liberty, and Patriot.

In 2007, Jeep unveiled the Wrangler JK, which offered improved safety, fuel economy, and power. Today, Jeep continues to evolve, introducing new models such as the Wrangler JL and Gladiator, both of which offer exceptional off-road performance, luxurious comfort, and modern technology.

In conclusion, off-roading can be incredibly thrilling and rewarding, especially when using the right vehicle. Jeeps have a long-standing history as a reliable and rugged off-road vehicle, making them an ideal choice for off-roading enthusiasts.

With the right considerations and modifications, you can maximize the off-roading experience in your Jeep and tackle even the most challenging terrain with ease. The evolution of Jeep continues, ensuring that Jeep models are always up to date with the latest developments in technology and engineering.

Off-roading is growing in popularity among driving enthusiasts. Jeeps are often the vehicle of choice for adventure-seekers, thanks to their rugged construction and exceptional off-road capabilities.

However, different Jeep models offer varying levels of performance when it comes to off-road driving. Tire size can also influence a Jeeps off-road capabilities.

In this article, we will explore the role of bigger tires in off-roading and the differences between Jeep models ideal for off-roading.

The Role of Bigger Tires in Off-Roading

One of the best ways to improve a Jeeps off-road capabilities is to upgrade the tires. Larger tires offer a host of benefits, including increased ground clearance, better traction, and improved stability.

Here are some of the ways that bigger tires play a role in off-roading. 1.

Ground Clearance

Off-roading trails can often be uneven and rocky, making ground clearance essential when attempting to navigate through them. Bigger tires can provide a significant increase in ground clearance, making it easier for Jeeps to overcome obstacles and avoid damage to parts such as bumpers, axles, and skid plates.

Bigger tires also help to climb out of ruts and ditches that could ground out a smaller tire-equipped Jeep. 2.

Improved Traction

Off-roading often involves navigating rugged terrain, including dirt, mud, and rocks. Bigger tires provide a larger surface area and deeper treads, which improve traction and grip on all types of terrain.

Thanks to the larger contact patch, the tire is less likely to slip or spin, providing improved traction when tackling challenging inclines or declines. 3.

Better Stability

Bigger tires also provide better stability while off-roading. The increased height and width of the tire provide more stability and balance when driving off-road.

The added stability translates into better control, minimizing body sway and allowing for better control on the toughest of trails.

Differences Between Jeep Models Ideal for Off-Roading

Jeep offers many models, ranging from off-road-ready vehicles to luxury SUVs. When choosing a Jeep for off-roading, it’s essential to select the right model suited to your specific needs. Here are some of the differences between popular Jeep models, including the Wrangler, Cherokee, and Grand Cherokee.

1. Jeep Wrangler

The Jeep Wrangler is the most popular model for off-roading.

Its unique design and exceptional off-road capabilities make it the ultimate off-road ride. It features a two-door or four-door design with removable doors and a fold-down windshield.

Its high-riding suspension is essential for clearing obstacles and providing excellent ground clearance, making it ideal for rock crawling on rugged terrain. 2.

Jeep Cherokee

The Jeep Cherokee is an SUV that offers an excellent balance of off-road capability and on-road comfort. It features four-wheel drive, a high-riding suspension, and a low-range transfer case.

The Jeep Cherokee can handle most off-road trails while remaining a comfortable daily driver thanks to its plush interior and spacious cabin. 3.

Jeep Grand Cherokee

The Jeep Grand Cherokee is the most luxurious Jeep, offering exceptional off-road capabilities and a high level of sophistication. It features a four-wheel-drive system and several mechanical options ideal for off-roading, such as air suspension and skid plates.

The Grand Cherokee offers refinement and sophistication on and off-road, making it the perfect option for those who want to experience outstanding off-road performance and superior luxury features. In

Conclusion, Jeep models provide a level of off-road performance that is unmatched in their class. Bigger tires play a significant role in enhancing Jeep off-road capabilities.

The increased ground clearance, improved traction, and enhanced stability can make off-roading more enjoyable and safer. When it comes to choosing the ideal Jeep for off-roading, each model has different strengths and advantages.

It is essential to consider which one, Wrangler, Cherokee, or Grand Cherokee, aligns with your preferences, budget, and plans for future off-roading adventures. By making the right choice, you can invest in a vehicle that will provide both comfort and excitement when exploring the great outdoors.

Off-roading in a Jeep is an exhilarating experience, allowing you to explore the great outdoors and push your vehicle to its limits. To enhance off-road performance, many Jeep owners choose to install lift kits.

Lift kits raise the vehicle’s height, providing increased ground clearance and allowing for the use of bigger tires. Additionally, proper maintenance and additional enhancements are necessary to ensure your Jeep is in top condition for off-roading.

In this article, we will explore the benefits of lift kits and their impact on off-road performance. We will also discuss how to properly maintain and enhance your Jeep for off-roading.

The Benefits of Lift Kits and Their Impact on Off-Road Performance

1. Increased Ground Clearance

One of the primary benefits of lift kits is increased ground clearance.

By lifting the Jeep’s suspension, the distance between the axles and the ground is increased, allowing the vehicle to clear larger obstacles without the risk of damage to the vehicle’s undercarriage. With greater ground clearance, you can easily traverse rocky trails, drive over fallen logs, and navigate through deep ruts while keeping your Jeep safe from potential damage.

2. Ability to Use Bigger Tires

Lift kits also provide the necessary space to install bigger tires on your Jeep.

Bigger tires offer improved traction, a smoother ride when off-roading, and enhanced stability. With larger tires, your Jeep can conquer more difficult terrain, including mud, sand, and loose gravel.

The increased surface area of the tires also improves grip, reducing the chances of your Jeep getting stuck in challenging conditions. 3.

Improved Articulation

Articulation refers to the suspension’s ability to flex and keep the tires in contact with the ground, ensuring optimal traction. Lift kits can improve a Jeep’s articulation by allowing for increased wheel travel.

This increased articulation enables the vehicle to maintain better contact with uneven surfaces, ensuring that all four wheels remain on the ground, providing enhanced traction. 4.

Better Approach and Departure Angles

Off-road obstacles often require steep approaches and departures, meaning the angle at which your Jeep’s front or rear bumper encounters an obstacle. Lift kits can improve both approach and departure angles by raising the vehicle’s height.

This allows your Jeep to tackle steeper inclines and declines, ensuring that the body of your vehicle doesn’t come into contact with the obstacle, reducing the risk of damage.

Proper Maintenance and Enhancement of Your Jeep for Off-Roading

1. Regular Inspections

Regular inspections are crucial to ensure your Jeep is in optimal condition for off-roading.

Pay attention to the tires, suspension components, and undercarriage for any signs of damage or wear. Regularly check the tire pressure and tread depth to ensure optimal performance.

Inspecting and maintaining the engine, brakes, and drivetrain are equally important to guarantee the Jeep’s reliability and safety. 2.

Fluid Changes

Off-roading puts additional stress on your Jeep’s mechanical components. Regularly changing the oil, transmission fluid, differential fluid, and other fluids is essential for keeping these components properly lubricated and cooled.

Follow the manufacturer’s recommended maintenance schedule to ensure the Jeep is ready for off-roading adventures. 3.

Upgraded Skid Plates

Skid plates are crucial for protecting your Jeep’s undercarriage from damage when driving over rocks, logs, and other obstacles. If your Jeep doesn’t come equipped with skid plates, consider investing in aftermarket skid plates to provide the necessary protection during off-roading.

Ensure that the skid plates are properly installed and securely fastened to the vehicle. 4.

Auxiliary Lighting

Off-roading often involves navigating trails in low-light conditions. Installing auxiliary lighting, such as off-road LED light bars or spotlights, can significantly improve visibility and safety.

Auxiliary lighting can illuminate the trail ahead, making it easier to identify obstacles and hazards. 5.

Recovery Equipment

When venturing off-road, it’s important to be prepared for challenging situations. Carry recovery equipment, such as a winch, recovery straps, and a high-lift jack, in case your Jeep becomes stuck or needs to be recovered.

Properly using this equipment and knowing proper recovery techniques is essential for your safety and the well-being of your Jeep.


Lift kits enhance a Jeep’s off-road performance by increasing ground clearance, allowing for bigger tires, improving articulation, and providing better approach and departure angles. However, it is crucial to properly maintain your Jeep for off-roading by regularly inspecting and servicing mechanical components, upgrading skid plates, installing auxiliary lighting, and carrying recovery equipment.

Following these measures ensures that your Jeep is always in top condition for enjoyable and safe off-roading experiences. By implementing these techniques and enhancements, you can maximize the capabilities of your Jeep and fully indulge in the thrill of off-roading.

Off-roading in a Jeep is more than just a hobby; it’s an adventure. With its rugged design and exceptional off-road capabilities, a Jeep is the perfect vehicle for exploring new terrain and pushing your limits.

In this article, we will explore some exciting adventures you can embark on in your off-road Jeep. We will also delve into the role of suspension systems in off-roading and how they play a crucial part in optimizing your Jeep’s performance.

Adventures to Take in Your Off-Road Jeep

1. Rock Crawling

Rock crawling is a popular and challenging off-roading activity that involves navigating your Jeep through rocky terrains with steep inclines and uneven surfaces.

Some well-known rock crawling destinations include Moab, Utah, and Johnson Valley, California. Brace yourself for an adrenaline-packed adventure as you carefully maneuver your Jeep through narrow crevices, steep boulders, and rocky trails.

2. Mud Bogging

Mud bogging is an exhilarating off-roading activity that takes you through muddy trails and deep pits filled with thick mud.

With the right modifications, such as larger tires and a lifted suspension, your Jeep can handle the tough conditions and churn through the mud with ease. Look for dedicated off-roading parks or trails that offer mud bogging experiences, like Redneck Mud Park in Florida or The Cliffs Insane Terrain Off-Road Park in Illinois.

3. Sand Dune Surfing

One of the most enjoyable off-roading adventures is sand dune surfing.

Find a sandy desert or beach location, such as Glamis in California or the Outer Banks in North Carolina, and let your Jeep loose on the undulating sand dunes. The key to sand dune surfing is maintaining momentum and staying in control as you ride the peaks and slopes of the dunes.

It’s an adrenaline rush like no other. 4.

Trail Riding

Trail riding is a versatile off-roading adventure that can be tailored to your skill level and preferences. From scenic forest trails to challenging mountain paths, trail riding allows you to explore the beauty of nature while putting your Jeep to the test.

There are countless trails across the country, like the Rubicon Trail in California or the Hatfield-McCoy Trails in West Virginia, that offer a range of terrains and difficulties for trail riders of all levels.

The Role of Suspension Systems in Off-Roading

1. Improved Articulation

Suspension systems play a crucial role in off-roading by providing improved articulation.

Articulation refers to the ability of each wheel to move independently, allowing the tire to maintain maximum contact with the ground. A well-designed suspension system, such as a long-arm suspension or a multi-link suspension, provides optimal articulation, ensuring increased traction on rough and uneven terrain.

2. Enhanced Ground Clearance

Off-roading often involves encountering obstacles like rocks, fallen branches, and deep ruts.

A proper suspension system can provide increased ground clearance, which allows your Jeep to clear these obstacles without getting stuck or damaging vital components. By lifting the Jeep’s height, a suspension system ensures that the undercarriage is less likely to make contact with the ground, reducing the risk of damage and improving off-road performance.

3. Damping and Shock Absorption

Suspension systems also play a crucial role in damping and shock absorption.

Off-roading trails can be bumpy and rough, causing your Jeep to experience significant vibrations and impacts. High-quality shocks and springs in the suspension system help to absorb these shocks, providing a smoother and more controlled ride.

This not only enhances overall comfort but also reduces strain on your Jeep’s components, prolonging their lifespan. 4.

Stability and Control

When off-roading, stability and control are paramount. A well-tuned suspension system ensures that your Jeep remains stable and controllable, even in challenging terrains and extreme maneuvers.

It helps to reduce body roll, improve directional stability, and provide better handling, giving you the confidence to tackle any off-road adventure.


Embarking on off-roading adventures in your Jeep is an experience like no other. Whether you choose to tackle rocky trails, conquer muddy pits, surf sand dunes, or enjoy scenic trail rides, your Jeep is built to handle the adventure.

To optimize your Jeep’s off-road performance, a well-designed suspension system is essential. It enhances articulation, improves ground clearance, absorbs shocks, and provides stability and control, allowing you to navigate through the toughest terrains with ease.

So, gear up, plan your next off-roading adventure, and let your off-road Jeep take you on an unforgettable journey. Exploring off-road trails and conquering challenging terrain requires a capable vehicle that can withstand the demands of the adventure.

Jeeps are renowned for their off-road capabilities, thanks to their rugged design and a range of features and accessories that make them ideal for off-roading. Additionally, choosing the right tires is essential for maximizing your Jeep’s performance off-road.

In this article, we will explore the features and accessories that make Jeeps ideal for off-roading. We will also delve into how to choose the right tires for off-roading.

Features and Accessories that Make Jeeps Ideal for Off-Roading

1. Four-Wheel Drive (4WD) System

Jeeps are equipped with a 4WD system that powers all four wheels simultaneously, providing excellent traction and control in off-road conditions.

The 4WD system ensures that power is distributed to the wheels that have the most grip, allowing the Jeep to navigate through diverse terrains with ease. 2.

High Ground Clearance

Jeeps are designed with ample ground clearance to tackle obstacles off-road. The higher the ground clearance, the less likely your Jeep will bottom out on rocks, logs, or uneven terrain.

The elevated suspension and underbody components ensure that your Jeep can clear obstacles without getting stuck or sustaining damage. 3.

Solid Axles

Jeeps feature solid axles, which provide increased strength and durability when off-roading. Solid axles improve articulation and axle flex, allowing the wheels to maintain better contact with the ground and ensuring maximum traction on uneven surfaces.

4. Skid Plates and Rock Sliders

Skid plates and rock sliders are essential accessories for protecting your Jeep when off-roading.

Skid plates shield crucial components, such as the oil pan and transfer case, from potential damage caused by rocks and debris. Rock sliders provide additional protection to the sides of your Jeep, guarding against impacts from rocks and tree stumps.

5. Winches

A winch is a must-have accessory for off-roading.

It can pull your Jeep out of sticky situations, such as getting stuck in mud, sand, or deep ruts. Winches can also assist in recovering other vehicles during off-road adventures, making them a valuable tool that enhances the Jeep’s off-road capabilities.

6. Off-Road Lights

Off-road lights are essential for providing additional visibility during night-time off-roading or in low-light conditions.

LED light bars, spotlights, and floodlights are popular choices to illuminate the terrain ahead, ensuring better visibility and safety during off-road adventures.

How to Choose the Right Tires for Off-Roading

1. Tire Size

Consider the terrain you will encounter when selecting the right tire size for off-roading.

Bigger tires offer increased ground clearance and better traction, making them suitable for more rugged terrains. However, ensure that the chosen tire size fits your Jeep without rubbing against fenders or suspension components.

2. Tread Pattern

The tread pattern of off-road tires is crucial for maximizing traction on different terrains.

Mud-terrain tires have aggressive tread patterns with large biting edges, providing excellent grip in muddy conditions. All-terrain tires strike a balance between on-road comfort and off-road capability, making them suitable for a variety of terrains.

Choose a tread pattern that suits the specific off-road conditions you will encounter. 3.

Sidewall Strength

Off-road tires with reinforced sidewalls are ideal for off-roading because they can better resist punctures, cuts, and damage from rough terrain. Look for tires with strengthened sidewalls to ensure increased durability and resistance to damage when venturing off-road.

4. Tire Pressure

Proper tire pressure is essential for optimal off-road performance.

Lowering tire pressure can improve traction by increasing the tire’s contact patch with the ground. It helps to distribute the vehicle’s weight over a larger surface area, which is beneficial on soft terrains like sand or mud.

However, always ensure that you follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and never lower the tire pressure beyond a safe range. 5.

Seasonal Considerations

Consider the seasons and weather conditions you will encounter when off-roading. Some off-road tires are designed specifically for certain weather conditions, such as winter tires for improved traction on snow or ice.

Take into account the climate and temperature variations in your off-roading locations when selecting the right tires.


Jeeps are favored by off-roading enthusiasts for their rugged construction and exceptional off-road capabilities. Features such as four-wheel drive, high ground clearance, solid axles, skid plates, winches, and off-road lighting make Jeeps ideal for navigating challenging terrains.

Additionally, choosing the right tires for off-roading is crucial for maximizing your Jeep’s performance. Consider factors such as tire size, tread pattern, sidewall strength, tire pressure, and seasonal considerations when selecting the perfect off-road tires for your Jeep.

By leveraging the right features, accessories, and tires, you can optimize your Jeep’s off-road performance and confidently tackle any off-road adventure that comes your way. Off-roading can be an exhilarating and challenging activity that allows you to push the limits of your Jeep and explore new terrains.

However, proper preparation is key to ensuring a safe and enjoyable off-roading experience. In this article, we will explore how to prepare for off-roading excursions, including important considerations and steps to take before hitting the trails.

We will also delve into the differences between manual and automatic transmissions for optimal off-roading performance and help you determine which option is best suited for your off-roading adventures.

How to Prepare for Off-Roading Excursions

1. Research and Plan

Before embarking on an off-roading excursion, it is important to research and plan your trip.

Identify the off-road trails you want to explore and gather information about the terrain, difficulty level, and any permits or fees required. Understand the rules and regulations of the area, and check whether there are any seasonal closures or restrictions in place, ensuring you are prepared for all eventualities.

2. Inspect Your Jeep

Perform a thorough inspection of your Jeep before heading off-road.

Check the fluids, including engine oil, transmission fluid, coolant, and brake fluid, to ensure they are at the appropriate levels. Examine the tires for proper inflation, tread depth, and any signs of damage.

Inspect the suspension, brakes, and drivetrain components for wear or potential issues. Pay attention to the skid plates, rock sliders, winch, and lights, ensuring they are in good working condition.

3. Essential Gear and Recovery Equipment

Always carry essential gear and recovery equipment when off-roading.

Pack a recovery kit that includes a winch, tow straps, recovery boards, a high-lift jack, and a shovel. Ensure you have a first-aid kit, fire extinguisher, tools, spare parts, and a tire repair kit.

It is also wise to have extra food, water, and appropriate clothing in case of emergencies or unexpected delays. 4.

Communication and Navigation

Off-roading often takes you to remote areas where cell phone service may be limited or nonexistent. It is essential to have alternative means of communication, such as a handheld radio or satellite phone, to call for help if needed.

Consider using a GPS system or offlin

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